Shute gives an extensive literature overview of formative feedback (Shute, 2007; 2008). Her Research Report 'Focus on Formative Feedback' published in 2007 can be downloaded from the internet as a PDF. She publised a peer-reviewed version in 2008. For both see the reference section below.

Broad definition

A broad definition of feedback: ‘information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify the learner’s thinking or behavior for the purpose of improving learning’ (Shute, 2007)

Refined definition

Shute further refines feedback as 'multidimensional, nonevaluative, supportive, learner-controlled, timely, specific, credible, infrequent, contingent, and genuine (e.g., Brophy, 1981; Schwartz & White, 2000).' (Shute, 2007).

Shute indicates that there are two types of information: verification and elaboration.

Specific and directive feedback:

(a) addresses the topic, (b) addresses the response, (c) discusses particular error(s)

Facilitative feedback:

(d) provides worked examples, or (e) gives gentle guidance

Relevance for "Out of Control"

In the above refined definition, 'learner controlled' is of particular interest for Out of Control. How do we ensure that the learner (be it either student, coach, client, etc.) actually controls feedback in the sense that what is conveyed is actually helping the learning process?


Brophy, J.E. (1981). Teacher praise: A functional analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5-32

Shute, V.J. (2007). Focus on Formative Feedback. Research Report Educational Testing Service Princeton Rr. Retrieve the report through:

Shute, V.J. (2008). Focus on Formative Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189.

OoC: feedback (last edited 2013-10-13 22:01:02 by s529d4082)